c. Problems of zero tillage are low seed germination, low mineralization and build up of volunteer plants. While soil puddling can be classified as a secondary tillage its primary purpose is to restrict water movement from the surface layers. If deep tire tracks are left in the soil, then the soil is probably too wet for tilling. Zero tillage is possible where the soil has: (a) course textured surface, (b) good internal drainage and (c) adequate quantity of residue as mulch. Tillage is the manipulation of the soil into a desired condition by mechanical means; tools are employed to achieve some desired effect (such as pulverization, cutting, or movement). Excessively wet soils are said to be “plastic”; they move and smear easily and can be molded by heavy machinery leading to sub-soil compaction. Tillage erosion refers to the net soil translocation on the hillslope due to tillage operations, expressed in units of volume, mass, or depth per unit width of tillage. With no-till, the improved soil structure and moisture conserving residue cover makes more water available for crop production by improving infiltration and decreasing evaporation from the soil surface. The transport and resultant displacement of soil during tillage is referred to as tillage translocation. 2 Efficient Fertilizer Use Manual — Tillage Systems No-till — The CTIC defines no-till as a system in which the soil is left undisturbed from harvest to planting Mulch tillage (stubble mulch tillage). Lower numbers indicate less overall disturbance to the soil layer. Contour cultivation follows the contour lines of sloping fields. Tillage can be destructive to soil quality, especially when it is done at the wrong time. Tillage is normally classified as primary or secondary tillage. Types of tillage Describe primary and secondary tillage. Tillage was used for seedbed preparation, weed suppression, soil aeration, turning over cover crops and forages, burying heavy crop residue, leveling the soil, incorporating manure and fertilizer into the root zone and activating pesticides. Conservation tillage, such as stubble mulch tillage, minimum tillage, reduced tillage, and no-tillage, leaves at least 30% of the soil surface covered by plant residue after planting to reduce erosion and surface runoff. Primary tillage Primary tillage is the first soil tillage after the last harvest. The effect of tillage on soil. "Conservation tillage—Any tillage and planting system that covers 30 percent or more of the soil surface with crop residue, after planting, to reduce soil erosion by water. The soil is prepared in such a way that plant residues or other mulching materials are specifically left on or near the surface of the farm. Any system that ensures a maximum retention of crop residues (30% or more) on the soil surface. However, tillage has all along been contributing negatively to soil quality. Soil is tilled to change its structure, to kill weeds, and to manage crop residues. These techniques maintain plant residues on at least 30% of the soil surface after tillage activities. The tillage systems classified as conservation tillage are no-till, ridge-till, and mulch-till. Conservation tillage, or minimum tillage, is a broadly defined practice that includes no-till, strip till, ridge till, and mulch till systems. Tillage breaks up soil structure and destroys residue. 1. It is based on factors determined by crop management decisions being implemented for a particular field. Soil Tillage Intensity Rating (STIR) Soil Tillage Intensity Rating is a numerical value calculated using RUSLE2. By definition, No-Till For a particular field is based on factors determined by crop management decisions implemented... 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