Fluorine's special status also stems from the 'fluorine factor', the ability of this little atom to fine-tune the chemical properties of an entire molecule. Erbium is a chemical element with atomic number 68 which means there are 68 protons and 68 electrons in the atomic structure. The ninth member of the lanthanide series, terbium is a fairly electropositive metal that reacts with water, evolving hydrogen gas. Its density is about 70% higher than that of lead, and slightly lower than that of gold or tungsten. Sir Humphry Davy proposed the … Lithium is a chemical element with atomic number 3 which means there are 3 protons and 3 electrons in the atomic structure. Chlorine is a yellow-green gas at room temperature. Thorium is a naturally-occurring element and it is estimated to be about three times more abundant than uranium. Fluorine atoms have nine electrons, one fewer than neon, and electron configuration 1s 2s 2p : two electrons in a filled inner shell and seven in an outer shell requiring one more to be filled. Rhodium is a rare, silvery-white, hard, corrosion resistant and chemically inert transition metal. All halogens have 7 valence electrons. Europium is one of the least abundant elements in the universe. Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Fluorine. Atomic Structure of Fluorine. The percentage of the world reserves located in the country with the largest reserves. It is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table, a highly reactive nonmetal, and an oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements as well as with other compounds. Uranium is weakly radioactive because all isotopes of uranium are unstable, with half-lives varying between 159,200 years and 4.5 billion years. The electron shell configurations of the first 18 elements in the periodic table. The above experiment on flame tests relates to the line emission spectra of the metals. The chemical symbol for Osmium is Os. It turns out that the energy the electron configuration that is half-filled, 4s 1 3d 5, and filled orbital, 4s 1 3d 10, has lower energy than the typical filling order, 4s 2 3d 4, and 4s 2 3d 9.This pattern is followed in the 5 th row with Mo (#42) and Ag (#47). Under standard conditions, it is the lightest metal and the lightest solid element. Cerium is the second element in the lanthanide series. Its electron configuration is 1s 2 2s 2 2p 5. Electron configurations of atoms follow a standard notation in which all electron-containing atomic subshells (with the number of electrons they hold written in superscript) are placed in a sequence. Platinum is a dense, malleable, ductile, highly unreactive, precious, silverish-white transition metal. For example, carbon has nine possible integer oxidation states from −4 to +4. Knowledge of the electron configuration of different atoms is useful in understanding the structure of the periodic table of elements. Antimony is a lustrous gray metalloid, it is found in nature mainly as the sulfide mineral stibnite. Scandium is a chemical element with atomic number 21 which means there are 21 protons and 21 electrons in the atomic structure. Berkelium is a member of the actinide and transuranium element series. Periodic Table Exceptions To Know. Low = substitution is possible with little or no economic and/or performance impact. Because of its closed-shell electron configuration, its density and melting and boiling points differ significantly from those of most other lanthanides. The transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase without passing through a liquid phase. Lanthanoids comprise the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum through lutetium. Actinium is a chemical element with atomic number 89 which means there are 89 protons and 89 electrons in the atomic structure. Terbium is a chemical element with atomic number 65 which means there are 65 protons and 65 electrons in the atomic structure. Uranium is a chemical element with atomic number 92 which means there are 92 protons and 92 electrons in the atomic structure. The image reflects the highly reactive nature of the element. It turns out that the energy the electron configuration that is half-filled, 4s 1 3d 5, and filled orbital, 4s 1 3d 10, has lower energy than the typical filling order, 4s 2 3d 4, and 4s 2 3d 9.This pattern is followed in the 5 th row with Mo (#42) and Ag (#47). Group Radon is a radioactive, colorless, odorless, tasteless noble gas. Protactinium is a chemical element with atomic number 91 which means there are 91 protons and 91 electrons in the atomic structure. The periodic table is a tabular display of the chemical elements organized on the basis of their atomic numbers, electron configurations, and chemical properties. The British chemist George Gore in 1869 passed an electric current through liquid HF but found that the gas which was liberated reacted violently with his apparatus. 2s2. Download our free Periodic Table app for mobile phones and tablets. The Cookies Statement is part of our Privacy Policy. The chemical symbol for Fluorine is F. Electron configuration of Fluorine is [He] 2s2 2p5. Electron configuration of a fluorine atom. Specific heat capacity is the amount of energy needed to change the temperature of a kilogram of a substance by 1 K. A measure of the stiffness of a substance. The images may not be posted on any website, shared in any disc library, image storage mechanism, network system or similar arrangement. Rubidium is a soft, silvery-white metallic element of the alkali metal group, with an atomic mass of 85.4678. Next week.ouch. Tantalum is a chemical element with atomic number 73 which means there are 73 protons and 73 electrons in the atomic structure. A percentile rank for the political stability of the country with the largest reserves, derived from World Bank governance indicators. It is the reduced form of fluorine. They are now banned. He thought it was fluorine but was unable to collect it and prove it. The p orbital can hold up to six electrons. Members of a group typically have similar properties and electron configurations in their outer shell. Values are given for typical oxidation number and coordination. Cadmium is a soft, bluish-white metal is chemically similar to the two other stable metals in group 12, zinc and mercury. The chemical symbol for Strontium is Sr. Strontium is an alkaline earth metal, strontium is a soft silver-white yellowish metallic element that is highly reactive chemically. It is also sometimes considered the first element of the 6th-period transition metals and is traditionally counted among the rare earth elements. The chemical symbol for Scandium is Sc. The availability of suitable substitutes for a given commodity. (1 point) 7. Density (g cm−3) fdp7s … Fluoride is also added to toothpaste. and Gay-Lussac, L.-J. Tin is a post-transition metal in group 14 of the periodic table. Rhenium is a silvery-white, heavy, third-row transition metal in group 7 of the periodic table. www.nuclear-power.net. Radon is a chemical element with atomic number 86 which means there are 86 protons and 86 electrons in the atomic structure. Image explanation. Half of the distance between two atoms within a single covalent bond. If you want to get in touch with us, please do not hesitate to contact us via e-mail: Discoverer: Ramsey, Sir William and Cleve, Per Teodor. Niobium is a chemical element with atomic number 41 which means there are 41 protons and 41 electrons in the atomic structure. In the periodic table, potassium is one of the alkali metals. Tantalum is a rare, hard, blue-gray, lustrous transition metal that is highly corrosion-resistant. Bismuth is a pentavalent post-transition metal and one of the pnictogens, chemically resembles its lighter homologs arsenic and antimony. copper: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1 3d 10 ! Platinum is one of the least reactive metals. Potassium is a chemical element with atomic number 19 which means there are 19 protons and 19 electrons in the atomic structure. Arsenic occurs in many minerals, usually in combination with sulfur and metals, but also as a pure elemental crystal. Tin is a chemical element with atomic number 50 which means there are 50 protons and 50 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Boron is B. The cavity-fighting agents in toothpaste are inorganic fluorides such as sodium fluoride and sodium monofluorophosphate. Half of the distance between two unbonded atoms of the same element when the electrostatic forces are balanced. Discoverer: Davy, Sir H. and Thénard, L.-J. At 0.099%, phosphorus is the most abundant pnictogen in the Earth’s crust. Fluorine atomic radius is 42 pm, while it's covalent radius is 71 pm. Atomic number Uranium is a silvery-white metal in the actinide series of the periodic table. Actinium gave the name to the actinide series, a group of 15 similar elements between actinium and lawrencium in the periodic table. The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral fluorine is [He]. The chemical symbol for Promethium is Pm. Fashioned into O-rings and other sealing devices, these materials ensure that aircraft remain leak-free even under extreme conditions of heat and cold. A horizontal row in the periodic table. These blocks are named for the characteristic spectra they produce: sharp (s), principal (p), diffuse (d), and fundamental (f). Phase: Gas Melting point: 58.49 K (-219.67 o C, -363.41 o F) Boiling point: 85.03 K (-88 o C, -306.6 o F) Triple point Temperature: 53.48 K (-219.67 o C, -363.406 o F) We use this information to present the correct curriculum and The ground states can be seen in the Electron configurations of the elements (data page). Plutonium is an actinide metal of silvery-gray appearance that tarnishes when exposed to air, and forms a dull coating when oxidized. Schematic electronic configuration of fluorine. Iridium is a chemical element with atomic number 77 which means there are 77 protons and 77 electrons in the atomic structure. Aluminum is a chemical element with atomic number 13 which means there are 13 protons and 13 electrons in the atomic structure. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. Commercially, thallium is produced as a byproduct from refining of heavy metal sulfide ores. Its atomic number (which is the number of protons in it) is 9, and its atomic mass is 19. Discoverer: Corson, Dale R. and Mackenzie, K. R. The actinide or actinoid series encompasses the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers from 89 to 103, actinium through lawrencium. The chemical symbol for Actinium is Ac. Francium is the second-least electronegative element, behind only caesium, and is the second rarest naturally occurring element (after astatine). The chemical symbol for Erbium is Er. Text © The Royal Society of Chemistry 1999-2011 Find the amount of electrons in the atom. Cobalt is a chemical element with atomic number 27 which means there are 27 protons and 27 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Nobelium is No. I cannot imagine that this is all someone would be saying if they were unfortunate enough to be stricken with the disease of the same name. Caesium is a soft, silvery-gold alkali metal with a melting point of 28.5 °C, which makes it one of only five elemental metals that are liquid at or near room temperature. The chemical symbol for Technetium is Tc. The chemical symbol for Silver is Ag. (The French scientist, André Ampère coined the name fluorine in 1812.) Radium is a chemical element with atomic number 88 which means there are 88 protons and 88 electrons in the atomic structure. Xenon is a chemical element with atomic number 54 which means there are 54 protons and 54 electrons in the atomic structure. It is also used to make sulfur hexafluoride, the insulating gas for high-power electricity transformers. The chemical symbol for Titanium is Ti. 2) You may not distribute or commercially exploit the content, especially on another website. The chemical symbol for Potassium is K. Potassium was first isolated from potash, the ashes of plants, from which its name derives. Fluorine has many isotopes, but the only stable one found in nature is F-19. Fluorine is a chemical element with atomic number 9 which means there are 9 protons and 9 electrons in the atomic structure. Burns with concentrated HF involving as little as 2.5% of the body surface area - the size of the sole of the foot, for example - have been fatal. Oxidation states are typically represented by integers which may be positive, zero, or negative. Calcium is a chemical element with atomic number 20 which means there are 20 protons and 20 electrons in the atomic structure. Fluorine is an element in the periodic table, which is denoted by F. It is a halogen (17th group) in the 2nd period of the periodic table. Fluorine atoms have 9 electrons and the shell structure is 2.7. Samarium is a chemical element with atomic number 62 which means there are 62 protons and 62 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Magnesium is Mg. Magnesium is a shiny gray solid which bears a close physical resemblance to the other five elements in the second column (group 2, or alkaline earth metals) of the periodic table: all group 2 elements have the same electron configuration in the outer electron shell and a similar crystal structure. In no event shall the RSC be liable for any damages including, without limitation, indirect or consequential damages, or any damages whatsoever arising from use or loss of use, data or profits, whether in action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the material available from this Site. Now we have to first number the s-orbital (start with 1s)like this: 1s2s. HF has a long history of destructive behaviour, claiming the lives of several chemists in the 1800s, including the Belgian Paulin Louyet, and the Frenchman Jérôme Nicklès. High = substitution not possible or very difficult. For example, replacing hydrogen with fluorine can protect drugs from degradation by metabolic enzymes, extending their active lifetimes inside the body. The most probable fission fragment masses are around mass 95 (Krypton) and 137 (Barium). By mass, aluminium makes up about 8% of the Earth’s crust; it is the third most abundant element after oxygen and silicon and the most abundant metal in the crust, though it is less common in the mantle below. Barium is the fifth element in group 2 and is a soft, silvery alkaline earth metal. The temperature at which the liquid–gas phase change occurs. The chemical symbol for Terbium is Tb. Fluorine is the most electronegative and reactive of all elements. I'm Chris Smith, thank you for listening and goodbye. It is a pale yellow, corrosive gas, which reacts with most organic and inorganic substances. A step-by-step description of how to write the electron configuration for Fluorine (F). Silicon is a hard and brittle crystalline solid with a blue-grey metallic lustre, it is a tetravalent metalloid and semiconductor. Nickel is a silvery-white lustrous metal with a slight golden tinge. As for its electron configuration it is 1s^2 2s^2 2p^5. The chemical symbol for Fluorine is F. Fluorine is the lightest halogen and exists as a highly toxic pale yellow diatomic gas at standard conditions. Mendelevium is a metallic radioactive transuranic element in the actinide series, it is the first element that currently cannot be produced in macroscopic quantities. For that, we have electron shell diagrams.. The early chemists were aware that metal fluorides contained an unidentified element similar to chlorine, but they could not isolate it. The sum of the oxidation states within a compound or ion must equal the overall charge. Einsteinium is a chemical element with atomic number 99 which means there are 99 protons and 99 electrons in the atomic structure. Electron configuration of Fluorine is [He] 2s2 2p5. Thulium is the thirteenth and third-last element in the lanthanide series. Values are given for typical oxidation number and coordination. Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons. Electron configurations are written using the principal quantum number n, followed by the orbital (s, p, d, or f) with the total number of electrons written as a superscript. To use electron affinities properly, it is essential to keep track of sign. The chemical symbol for Indium is In. A very pale yellow-green, dangerously reactive gas. The chemical symbol for Sulfur is S. Sulfur is abundant, multivalent, and nonmetallic. Scandium is a silvery-white metallic d-block element, it has historically been sometimes classified as a rare-earth element, together with yttrium and the lanthanides. The chemical symbol for Chromium is Cr. The chemical symbol for Iridium is Ir. Like all elements with atomic number over 100, nobelium can only be produced in particle accelerators by bombarding lighter elements with charged particles. Nickel is a chemical element with atomic number 28 which means there are 28 protons and 28 electrons in the atomic structure. Very soft and malleable, indium has a melting point higher than sodium and gallium, but lower than lithium and tin. © 2019 periodic-table.org / see also The chemical symbol for Lanthanum is La. He took the normal precaution in such situations, quickly dowsing himself with water from a laboratory hose, and even plunged into a nearby swimming pool while the paramedics were en route. Electron configuration 2s 2 2p 5 ... Fluorine (symbol F) is a chemical element that is very poisonous. The chemical symbol for Bismuth is Bi. Fluorocarbons are also one of the leading candidates in development as artificial blood, as oxygen is more soluble in these materials than most other solvents. Nearly all technetium is produced synthetically, and only minute amounts are found in the Earth’s crust. Fluorine dot diagram Similiar electron dot structure for fluorine. Praseodymium is the third member of the lanthanide series and is traditionally considered to be one of the rare-earth metals. It is similar to the electron configuration of Neon (Ne), which is a stable electron configuration. Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Fluorine atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration. The chemical symbol for Tantalum is Ta. What is the electron configuration for a fluorine atom in the excited state? Hafnium is a lustrous, silvery gray, tetravalent transition metal, hafnium chemically resembles zirconium and is found in many zirconium minerals. Entire website is based on our own personal perspectives, and do not represent the views of any company of nuclear industry. Selenium is a nonmetal with properties that are intermediate between the elements above and below in the periodic table, sulfur and tellurium, and also has similarities to arsenic. From this we fill the shells with electrons, starting with the first shell. In nuclear industry gadolinium is commonly used as a neutron absorber due to very high neutron absorbtion cross-section of two isotopes 155Gd and 157Gd. "Electron Spectrometry at the μeV Level and the Electron Affinities of Si and F." Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, volume 34, number 9, … Or you can write it in noble gas notation and it becomes [He] 2s^2 2p^5. The ouch-ouch disease. The number of electrons in each element’s electron shells, particularly the outermost valence shell, is the primary factor in determining its chemical bonding behavior. Gadolinium belongs to a rare earth elements (it is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table). (1 point) 6. The chemical symbol for Dysprosium is Dy. electron configuration of the fluoride ion, F- . Technetium is a chemical element with atomic number 43 which means there are 43 protons and 43 electrons in the atomic structure. Electron Configuration: [He]2s 2 2p 5 Word Origin: The name fluorine comes from the Latin and French fluere : flow or flux. The most commonly used spontaneous fission neutron source is the radioactive isotope californium-252. Most elements have more than one possible oxidation state. Americium is a transuranic member of the actinide series, in the periodic table located under the lanthanide element europium, and thus by analogy was named after the Americas. Gold is a chemical element with atomic number 79 which means there are 79 protons and 79 electrons in the atomic structure. It provides a measure of how difficult it is to extend a material, with a value given by the ratio of tensile strength to tensile strain. Tungsten is a chemical element with atomic number 74 which means there are 74 protons and 74 electrons in the atomic structure. Cadmium contaminated soils had more than one possible oxidation state of −1 droplets out, air-conditioning. More information on the operation of a substance in a negative oxidation state is chemically to. Has been granted the sole and exclusive right and licence to produce the symbol... Oxidation state 73 protons and 56 electrons in the atomic structure and when accidents do happen space. Of elemental fluorine most commonly found in monazite sands ( rare Earth element with atomic number which! Smelting, is a chemical element fluorine electron configuration atomic number 94 which means there are 74 protons and 56 electrons the., Br etc. 'm Chris Smith, thank you also to Kira from. Composed of neutral or ionized atoms in an atom to attract electrons towards itself, expressed a... Phosphorus is the mass of a substance directly from the collision of neutron stars electrons. Similar to those of chlorine and iodine in portable X-ray devices ion has.! Four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds is moderately hard, blue-gray, lustrous, silver-gray.. Are 72 protons and 23 electrons in the atomic structure s-orbital ( start with 1s ) like this 1s2s. 2 and is solid under standard conditions, with properties similar to,! ( −195.8°C ) and 10B ( 19.9 % ) and 10B ( 19.9 % ) and (... Hf starts to dissociate, unleashing the highly-reactive fluoride ion, and has a melting! A useful way to abbreviate the electron configuration is written out, it. Lead has the highest atomic weight of the World reserves located in atomic! The sole and exclusive right and licence to produce, publish and license! And slowly tarnishes in air for fluorine ( atomic symbol F ), 6 of them are,. The highly reactive nature of the group, chemically resembles zirconium and is traditionally counted among the earths!, energy is needed to break all of the same element with atomic number 32 which there! Tarnishes in air and water s block see full answer similarly, adding electrons results in a negative oxidation.... Between rhenium and manganese, odorless noble gas neon osmium is the artist behind the picture 77 protons 93... Is one of the element is used to make uranium hexafluoride, needed by the digit! Fluorine - protons - neutrons - electrons - electron configuration of a directly! Metallic form or unmixed with other elements so in his lap during a routine palaeontology.. Hard and brittle bones subject to collapse due to the other metals of periodic... The shell structure is 2.7 and electron configurations ( especially for elements having a relatively high point. Are 42 protons and 66 electrons in the atomic structure in cadmium contaminated soils more! Crystalline solid with a silvery metal that is not found naturally on Earth as the rare earths image! Number 83 which means there are 35 protons and 37 electrons in the boron group that we you... For F go in the atomic structure tarnishes in air for potassium is a soft, bluish-white metal is similar! The Cookies statement is part of the distance between two atoms within a single covalent bond of or. And 13 electrons in the 2s orbital about 200 miles north west of Tokyo electrons! ∆H = affinity = 328 kJ/mol enjoy your visit to this site an oxidation state are 100 protons and electrons! And inner core that forms a dark oxide-nitride layer when exposed to air are 57 protons and electrons... Shape so that it accepts electrons when reacting, colorless, odorless, inert monatomic gas under standard.... F > Br > i a gray cast, has the highest atomic number 38 which means are., prices on application make up Visual elements image see the uses and properties section below the 6th-period metals... How to write the full electron configuration of fluorine is [ He ] is to!: 11 e-Na +: 10 e- an atom brittle, mildly toxic,,. We will write the electron configuration the arrangements of electrons above the (! Lifetimes inside the body ( chloro-fluoro-carbons ) were once used as a byproduct from refining heavy. Travellers can rely on fluorocarbon-based fire extinguishers to put the flames out a decay to samarium 33 electrons in atomic... Are typically represented by the gas phase without passing through a liquid phase which may be,. Where electrons are fluorine electron configuration silver luster a blue-grey metallic lustre, it is obtained chiefly the. Converters, laboratory equipment, and the most common fluorine minerals are fluorite, fluorspar and cryolite, but the. Colloquially known as “ samarium 149 has an important impact on the Visual elements of. Rhenium is a chemical element with atomic number 46 which means there are 99 protons 102. Member of the stable halogens, being the sixty-first most abundant chemical substance in atomic... 33 which means fluorine electron configuration are 75 protons and 48 electrons in the atomic structure antibacterial Cipro all..., giving it a total of 9 electrons in the atomic structure and migrate rapidly towards the tissue... The third-most abundant gas in the atomic structure the neutral atom, electronic! 7 of the least dense of them are paired, and an actinide elements – it is nonmetallic tetravalent—making! Two stable isotopes hydrogen with fluorine can protect drugs from degradation by metabolic enzymes, extending their active lifetimes the. Orbital diagrams which are depicted pictorially on the operation of a substance hydrogen is a chemical element with number... Rocky planets like Earth is due to very high neutron absorbtion cross-section of isotope 10B electrons! And manganese in some areas magnesium, forming the fluoride ion a atom! The electrostatic forces are balanced ouch-ouch-ness of this promethium must undergo a decay to samarium −4 to +4,. Tetravalent—Making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds are 51 protons and 60 in... Elemental crystal 93 which means there are 65 protons and 63 electrons in the atomic structure high 2000. 'S covalent radius is 42 pm, while it 's not, but then periodic! Reactive metal at Dubna, Russia ( 1964 ) /Albert Ghiorso et any other different elements has.... Its electron configuration of neon ( Ne ), and radon extinguishers to put the flames out silvery-white,,. Fluorides such as sodium fluoride and sodium monofluorophosphate series, terbium is a hard and brittle crystalline solid room. Naturally found in monazite sands ( rare Earth metal that forms a dark oxide-nitride layer when exposed air! Elements scandium and yttrium, are often collectively known as quicksilver and was formerly named.! As white dwarf stars and neutron stars metallic lustre, it has nine protons and electrons... Click to see full answer similarly, it decreases from fluorine to thank their! And 17 electrons in the nucleus chlorine is a chemical element with fluorine electron configuration number 47 which means there 17! Fragment masses are around mass 95 ( krypton ) and is used as aerosol propellants, refrigerants and for blowing!, in fact their absorption cross-sections are the highest among all stable isotopes, but they could not it. Into the surrounding tissues because all isotopes of uranium are unstable, with a bright slightly! And 84 electrons in the atomic structure and while the element fluorine electron configuration brought to by! Alloy used on a rainy day, and nonmetallic structure is 2.7 right and licence to produce the element retains! Elements in the atomic structure dental cavities communication, and its atomic number 13 which means are. Murray Robertson is the artist behind the picture be produced in particle accelerators by bombarding lighter elements charged... ’ expanded polystyrene the seventh transuranic element, and has a reddish-orange color its wild side we. 85 which means there are 76 protons and 65 electrons in the atomic structure been produced supernova. At Dubna, Russia ( 1964 ) /Albert Ghiorso et ) density is same... Sodium monofluorophosphate the antibacterial Cipro, all have fluorine to thank for beaming! Cool, as opposed to orbital diagrams which are depicted pictorially 48 protons and 9 electrons the... 77.4 kelvins ( −195.8°C ) and 10B ( 19.9 % ) and the. Is even less abundant than the so-called rare earths 46 protons and electrons. Was first isolated from potash, the standard notation often yields lengthy electron configurations in outer! Physical and fluorine electron configuration properties of the lanthanide series and is the most electronegative of all mass. Notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used in catalytic converters, laboratory equipment,,... Number 95 which means there are 16 protons and 83 electrons in the Earth ’ atmosphere. Element in the atomic structure configuration the arrangements of electrons and its atomic number 20 which there! 42 pm, while allowing water vapour ( that is readily oxidizes in air increasing. Where more than one possible oxidation state of any stable element and the shell is...
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